The Pharmacology of Calculus Bovis
Generally, Calculus bovis is a herb that is used in Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. The herb can also be found in Japan. It is known for its ability to cure high fevers and convulsions.
Among the traditional Chinese medicines, Calculus bovis (also known as ox bezoar) has been widely used to treat a variety of diseases. Its chemical composition is mainly composed of bile acids, taurine conjugates, and glycine. It is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor functions, as well as a strong ability to normalize gallbladder function. However, the exact mechanism of treating primary liver cancer remains unclear.
The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds of the two species of Calculus Bovis. To examine the molecular mechanisms of CB in treating PLC, in vitro experiments were conducted. Cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro, and their beating pattern was observed. They were then incubated with Calculus bovis-ext. for 48 h. Then, a phase contrast micrograph was used to evaluate the morphology of these cells.
Natural Calculus Bovis is rich in taurocholic acid and bilirubin. But its content of other components is less than that of the artificial product. The major bile acids in both products are dehydrocholic and cholic acids.
In the present study, the chemical composition of the artificial product was also investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Seven analytes were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column using 0.2% aqueous formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The results indicated that the relative concentrations of the seven analytes were 2 to 11 ng. Compared with the substitute, the artificial product showed less bilirubin and bilirubin-free, and had the highest batch-to-batch uniformity.
Moreover, the antibacterial activities of the artificial Calculus bovis extracts on S. aureus growth were investigated by microcalorimetry. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the two species were also compared.
The most common bile acids in the in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis were cholic and dehydrocholic acids. The bilirubin content was the highest in the natural Calculus Bovis. The other elements were mostly biliverdin and biliverdin-conjugates. Besides, there were minor amounts of uric acid and malondialdehyde.
The content of the major amino acids in the natural Calculus Bovis was identified as arginine, glutamic acid, proline, and glycine. It was also discovered that the natural Calculus Bovis was significantly higher in zinc. In addition, there was a close relationship between the quality of the Calculus Bovis and its developmental condition.
During the last 2000 years, Calculus bovis has been used to treat a wide range of diseases. Besides its medicinal value, it has also been found to have significant anti-tumor functions. However, the exact mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review current knowledge on the pharmacology of Calculus bovis. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide a valuable reference for future studies.
In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed to investigate the pharmacological activities of Calculus bovis. Calculus bovis compounds were selected and investigated to determine their roles in a variety of targets, including ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and central nervous system pathways. The effects of these compounds were assessed by using cell extracts, protein synthesis, and phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues of protein substrates.
Calculus bovis targets were constructed on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. GO enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway analysis, and compound-target network analysis were performed to identify common targets and pathway connections. The results showed that Calculus bovis was involved in calcium-related signaling, as well as in steroid hormone biosynthesis.
To further understand the pharmacological mechanisms of Calculus bovis, an in vitro experiment was carried out to examine its role in PLC. Cardiac myocytes were treated with Calculus bovis (CA) (0.5 mM) for 48 hours. The cells were then examined by phase contrast micrographs.
The findings of this study suggest that Calculus bovis has therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. It may also be associated with steroid hormone biosynthesis, as well as a metabolic pathway. Consequently, it may act through metabolism related pathways to control inflammatory response and reduce the risk of ischemic stroke.
The most common target of Calculus bovis is deoxycorticosterone. It regulates a variety of targets including the 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme and the dual-specificity phosphatase Cdc25A.
A total of 344 Calculus bovis targets were identified. These target genes were screened for gene-disease association or overlap in the DisGeNET database and in the SwissTargetPrediction database. The results show that the targets of Calculus bovis were clustered into eight categories.
Methods for determination
Several techniques have been developed for the analysis of bile acids in Calculus bovis. These methods are able to provide structural information on bile acids, which can be helpful to develop a comprehensive method to characterize and identify Calculus bovis. The physicochemical properties of Calculus bovis are complex. Therefore, the development of a comprehensive and accurate method is difficult.
To provide a new method for quality control, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) were used to analyze the bile acids in artificial Calculus bovis. The proposed method was accurate and produced good repeatability.
The mobile phase was 0.2% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. The gradient elution was 0-7 min. The column temperature was 25 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The drift tube temperature was 110 degrees C. The nebulizing gas flow rate was 1.9 L/h.
HPLC coupled with tandem MS was easy to use and acceptable in accuracy and precision. A new compound was detected in the in vitro cultured Calculus bovis. However, it was not detected in the natural Calculus bovis.
The major bioactive components of Calculus bovis are cholic acid, dehydrocholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid. A novel compound called 3a,12a-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5b-cholanic acid was identified. The densities of taurocholic acid were different in the two types of Calculus bovis.
A new method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive components in Calculus bovis. The UPLC-ELSD method was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC T3 C18 column. The column was 4.6 mmx250 mm and had a column temperature of 25 degrees. The mobile phase was 80% B-90% B. The run time was 52 minutes. The chromatographic conditions were optimized and the correlation coefficients were good. The method was validated according to regulatory guidelines.
In addition, the method was applied to 21 samples of Calculus bovis extractions. The results showed that the product was able to meet the detection regulation of Pharmacopoia of People’s Republic of China. The method also indicated that the product had a similar configuration to the natural Calculus bovis. The product contained total bioactive constituents and had a physicochemical property similar to the natural Calculus bovis.
Among the many side-effects of Calculus bovis are drowsiness, hypotension, and hypotension. This medication should be used with caution, and if you experience any symptoms of overdose, call your health care provider. You should also bring the medicine container or the medicine label with you. In order to help prevent accidental overdose, you should not drink alcohol while taking your medication. You should consult a pharmacist if you have questions.
Calculus bovis is one of the most commonly used medicinal materials in Japan. It is also widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, it has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we aimed to characterize the constituents of Calculus bovis and to examine its mechanism of action.
The constituents of the natural and artificial products were determined using a variety of methods. The major amino acids in the natural product were arginine, glycine, and proline. The major bile acids were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid. The content of chenodeoxycholic acid was higher in the artificial Calculus Suis. The major cholesterol in the artificial product was about 35% bilirubin by dry wright.
The morphological changes of the pulmonary tissues were observed by light and electron microscopy. In addition, the expression of laminin and fibronectin were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
The antibacterial activity of the artificial Calculus bovis extracts against S. aureus was investigated by microcalorimetry. The results showed that the growth curves of S. aureus in the presence of the extracts were thermogenic.
The content of bile acids in the in vitro cultured samples was greater than that of the natural products. In this study, the bilirubin content was used as a quality evaluation tool. The Gly content was higher in the Calculus Bovis group than the combination group. The zolpidem group had similar GABA content to the Calculus Bovis group. The inhibition of the Calculus Bovis group was stronger than that of the zolpidem group.
The inhibition of the Calculus Bovis group showed a reinforcing effect. The magnitude of the increase in the inhibitory neurotransmitters was lower in the combination group than the Calculus Bovis group.
The Pharmacology of Calculus Bovis