Several types of Oxgallstones are used as herbal medicines. These include cholesterol stones, pigment stones, and shape and colour stones. They are often sold at stores or online.
Approximately 15 per cent of the population over the age of 50 develop gallstones. They are hard deposits which form inside the gallbladder. These stones are not painful, and are generally detected during routine x-rays.
The gallbladder is a small pear shaped organ located below the liver. It stores bile. The bile then passes through the bile ducts to aid digestion. If something blocks these ducts, the bile cannot move properly, and the gallbladder begins to form gallstones.
The most common type of gallstone is cholesterol stones. They are formed when there is a buildup of high levels of cholesterol in the bile. These cholesterol stones are usually layered and have a yellowish or white color.
Cholesterol stones can be made of either bilirubin or calcium salts. These types of stones are often multiple and form in the gallbladder.
There are several risk factors for gallstones. Obesity is one of the most common factors. Another risk factor is a sedentary lifestyle. Some medications are also known to increase the risk of gallstones.
Having more than three stones in the gallbladder is considered a problem. In addition to pain, the stone may block the bile ducts, which can lead to infection and pancreatitis. The most common treatment for these stones is surgery. However, surgery may not be necessary.
For some patients, special medicines can be used to dissolve gallstones. These medicines can be taken for a long time.
The type of pain that you experience will depend on the type of stones that you have. Some people experience constant, dull, or sharp pain. Others experience only vague, general abdominal pain.
If the stones become lodged in the bile ducts, they can cause chills and fever. They can also cause a severe infection, which can be life-threatening.
Typical gallstones are composed of two types: pigment stones and cholesterol stones. The first type is composed of bilirubin, while the second type is made up of cholesterol. When the gallbladder bile contains too much bilirubin, it can combine with calcium salts and form pigment gallstones. However, when the bile ducts become blocked, the formation of pigment and cholesterol stones may happen simultaneously.
The present study was performed to compare the signal intensities of cholesterol gallstones and pigment gallstones in in vivo T1-weighted and 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo MR images. The results showed that, on T1-weighted MR image, the mean intensity of pigment gallstones was 4.36 times more than the body phantom and the mean intensity of cholesterol gallstones was 3.86 times more than the body phantom. On 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo images, the mean intensity of pigment gallstones appeared isointense.
Pigment stones are small dark stones that contain bilirubin. They are usually smaller than cholesterol stones. They can be black or brown. They form when the gallbladder doesn’t empty properly, when the bile ducts are blocked, or when the gallbladder is infected. They are often seen during abdominal surgery.
They are more common in women than men. They are more commonly found in women who are overweight. They are also more likely to develop in women who take hormone replacement therapy. They are more common in women who have a family history of gallstones. They are also more common in women who have an additional risk factor, such as oral contraceptives or extra estrogen.
The results also showed that, on T2-weighted MR image, the mean signal intensity of pigment gallstones was lower than the background. The mean signal intensity of cholesterol gallstones was lower than the background.
Shape and colour
Several factors can affect the presence of Ox gallstones. These include access to water from bores, the age and gender of the slaughtered animal, the composition of bile and bile salts, and the shape of the gallstones. They can also be influenced by light and moisture.
A typical ox gallstone is made up of calcium bilirubinate, which inhibits bacterial growth and has antihypertensive effects. It is believed to stimulate the immune system and stop convulsions.
Ox gallstones have a wide range of shapes. They can be pyramid shaped, square, round or egg shaped. They may be bright orange, brown or yellow in colour. The most valuable gallstones are the smooth golden specimens. They are worth between $15 and $35k per kilo.
These stones are delivered in one to five kg packages. These are then cleaned and dried. The stones are then vacuum packed. Then, they are flipped and rotated repeatedly in order to dry them more effectively.
The price of individual gallstones depends on their size, dryness, and quality. Generally, the value of stones decreases if they contain calcium or other material. The specific weight of a stone is also a factor in its value.
The market for gallstones is a big business. A gallstone broker sells “high-grade” products for $60 USD per gram. He will not pay for moldy or damaged stones.
Some traders sell these items on private Facebook groups. However, caution is advised when dealing with these sites.
According to VICE, one gallstone broker earned around $10,000 selling his wares. The buyer appraised each stone individually. The amount he paid was dependent on the size of the stone and its specific weight.
The price of ox gallstones varies depending on the market. In Asia, they can sell for as much as gold.
Besides being a valuable commodity, ox gallstones have several health benefits. They are able to stop tremors and convulsions, cleanse phlegm and remove toxicity. They are also used to treat heart and spirit disorders.
In ancient times, gallstones were also used as charms. These stones were even used as jewelry in the 8th century. The Persians also used them to cure poison. The Greeks believed that the stones had magical properties that could improve man’s vigor.
These days, ox gallstones are still used as medicine. The bilirubin in them is believed to have antioxidant properties. It can inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. It can also stimulate the immune system and increase the body’s reactive oxygen molecules. This makes it an effective treatment for a number of conditions, including hepatitis, lung cancer and heart disease.
Oxgallstones are sold as a proprietary Chinese medicine. This means that they are sold in a natural form without any processing. This has resulted in a high demand for natural gallstones. They can reach prices as high as HK$19,000 per tael, which is equivalent to US$65 a gram.
Some proponents of alternative Chinese medicine believe that gallstones can help heal liver illnesses and headaches. They also claim that they can alleviate low spirits.
According to the Chinese materia medica, animal biles have been used as herbal medicines for three millennia. This medicinal use is supported by an extensive archive of tomes on traditional Chinese medicine. The most popular form of gallstones is ox gallstones.
These stones are usually harvested from cattle. The process involves removing the stones from the gallbladder and drying them for two to three weeks in a dark room. They are then separated from other stones and pressed into pills.
Thousands of gallstones are being shipped to Hong Kong each year, making the city the biggest importer of Ox gallstones in the world. These clay-like stones are used in traditional Chinese medicine for a variety of conditions.
The Chinese pharmaceutical industry requires at least 100 metric tons of these stones each year. This is more than the entire supply of gallstones worldwide. But the lack of natural gallstones has led to the development of artificial gallstones.
These artificial gallstones are made of chemical ingredients. This means that the medicinal value of these stones is not comparable to the natural ones.
However, there is an increasing demand for these products. The Chinese government has promoted the use of gallstones as a cure for coronavirus, which has caused a spike in their prices. It is also believed that gallstones can be beneficial for heart, liver, and hepatitis illnesses.
The market for these products is a lucrative one. A pristine specimen of bovine gallstones can be worth EUR35,000 per kilogram. But the supply of these precious stones is extremely limited.
Most cattle gallstones are imported from Europe and Africa. They are then cleaned, dried, and packaged in hermetically sealed bags. They are then stored in a dark room at a temperature of 20 deg C.
Aside from being a profitable source of revenue, gallstones are also used in proprietary Chinese medicines. They are often found in the Formula Angong Niuhuang Wan. They are used to treat ailments such as acne, carbuncles, fever-induced delirium, mouth sores, and mania.
There are many places to purchase gallstones, including private Facebook groups. In fact, the most recent sales in China reached $55,880. But the price of these stones is unlikely to fall anytime soon.