How Does Calculus Bovis Work in Treating PLC?

How Does Calculus Bovis Work in Treating PLC? Historically, Calculus bovis has been used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in China. This herb has been used as…...

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How Does Calculus Bovis Work in Treating PLC?

calculus bovis

Historically, Calculus bovis has been used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in China. This herb has been used as an oral medication for a variety of conditions, including convulsions and high fever.

Chemical composition

Among the traditional animal drugs, Calculus bovis is one of the most widely used medicinal materials in Japan and other Asian countries. It has been known to play important roles in anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and sedation functions. However, despite its wide distribution and long history of use, little is known about its chemical composition and its role in the treatment of PLC. In this study, we sought to understand how CB works in treating PLC by studying its morphology, biological activity, and mechanism.

In vitro cultured samples had more total bile acids and CA compared with natural products. The amount of total bilirubin in the in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis samples was almost the same as the natural product.

To determine the multi-component contents of Calculus Bovis, we employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet. A Zorbax SB-C18 column with a gradient elution of methanol was used. The main components were glycine, taurine, and ursodeoxycholic acid. Detailed analysis of the UPLC fingerprints was performed using hierarchical clustering analysis.

In order to examine the effect of Calculus Bovis on the viability of cultured cardiomyocytes, we treated the cells with increasing concentrations of Australian Calculus Bovis. In addition, we investigated the effects of CB on the expression of laminin and the activity of liver superoxide dismutase.

Pharmacological properties

Various medicinal properties of Calculus bovis have been studied and discussed. However, the effects of natural Calculus bovis are variable, and the cost of producing it is prohibitive. The present study aims to show how Calculus bovis can be utilised to produce a novel drug. Its effect can be enhanced both in vivo and in vitro.

The most important component of Calculus bovis is bilirubin. The molecule is a byproduct of red blood cell breakage. It can induce gallbladder contraction and promote bile secretion. The compound has been shown to ameliorate liver damage in rats. Likewise, it has been found to be able to produce a significant increase in red blood cells in rabbits. It is also said to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

Another component of Calculus bovis is PZH, a musk-based compound. It is a class-1 protected TCM. In fact, it is so good at warding off disease that it has been considered a heat clearing substance. This is likely due to its lipid-lowering and detoxification effects.

Another tidbit about Calculus bovis is that it is produced by culturing it in vitro. This has been shown to result in the production of antioxidants, and in the process, protects the neurons and the blood-brain barrier from oxidative stress.

Ethnopharmacological relevance

Traditionally, Calculus Bovis Sativus has been used to relieve fever, inflammation and to normalize gallbladder function. However, it is still unknown how Calculus Bovis Sativus is able to exert its therapeutic effect. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of the therapeutic effects of Calculus Bovis Sativus and to find potential strategies for future research on its use.

Calculus Bovis is a Chinese medicinal material used to treat a wide variety of diseases. It is widely distributed in Asian countries. It is obtained from a number of sources. Its constituents include bile acids, bile pigments, peptides, cholesterols, microelements, amino acids and cholesterols.

The medicinal value of Calculus Bovis depends on its source materials. The quality of these materials is important because the safety of Calculus Bovis is closely related to its source materials. Moreover, it is important to have an efficient quality control system to ensure the quality of the material.

In this study, thirteen Calculus Bovis samples were characterized by major and trace elements. To determine their chemical composition, we used ICP-MS. The results show that there is a great difference in the elemental composition of C. bovis samples from different habitats.

Prevents ANIT-induced changes in bile flow and serum levels of ALT, AST, alkalinephosphatase and TBIL

Several studies have suggested that Calculus Bovis Sativus (CB) is a useful herbal medicine to reduce inflammation and fever. In this study, we investigated the effect of CB on preventing ANIT-induced changes in bile flow and serum levels of ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and TBIL.

Activated alkaline phosphatase, also known as GGT, is a enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate esters at alkaline pH. It is found in the liver, kidneys, and intestine. It is a protein that is important in regulating the NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

In this study, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of CB on preventing ANIT-induced cholestatic liver injury. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups. The control group was administered olive oil alone while the experimental groups were given PF and UDCA.

Intragastrically, the PF and UDCA were administered to the experimental groups. These substances were dissolved in normal saline. They were then given to the experimental groups for seven days. After the treatment, serum levels of g-GT, ALT, AST, and TBIL were measured biochemically. The serum levels were estimated using the BCA protein assay reagent kit.

UPLC-ELSD method for simultaneous quantification of seven components in natural Calculus bovis

UPLC-ELSD is a fast, ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous quantification of seven components in natural Calculus bovis. This method is suitable for a variety of applications, including quality control, quality assurance and the discovery of the main anti-bacterial components of artificial C. bovis.

In this study, a UPLC-ELSD method was used to simultaneously quantify five bile acid derivatives in Calculus bovis. The method was validated according to regulatory guidelines. The results showed that the method was accurate, precise, sensitive and selective. Moreover, the seven analytes had LODs of 2 to 11 ng.

The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid. However, compounds of chenodeoxycholic acid and taurocholate sodium may be the main anti-bacterial components in artificial C. bovis. Hence, they should be added to the UPLC analysis of the samples.

The major amino acids of natural Calculus bovis were arginine, glutamic acid, proline, and glycine. The concentrations of these components were higher in the natural product than in the artificial product. This indicates that the artificial product contains total bioactive constituents no less than the natural product.


BACKGROUND of calculus bovis is a rare medicinal material, widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. Its functions include protein hydrolyzation, reduction, RNA transcription and antioxidation. It is widely used in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Its effects include sedation, fever reduction, and lipid reduction.

The present study aims to investigate the biological and pharmacological properties of Calculus Bovis and its functions in ischemic stroke. In order to identify the effective components of Calculus Bovis, network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis were employed. Using the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compounds were collected. The major bile acids in both natural and artificial Calculus Bovis are dehydrocholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid.

To assess the quality of Calculus Bovis, we compared the bilirubin content and the total bile acid contents of different samples. The results showed that the in vitro cultured samples had higher bilirubin and total bile acid content than the natural products. The in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis had a good batch-to-batch uniformity. It also had the highest DCA and CA.


METHODS of Calculus Bovis have been investigated in this study. Calculus Bovis is an important medicinal material in China and Japan. It is used to treat a variety of diseases. It is also used to normalize gallbladder function. It has been reported that it has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and sedative effects. It can prevent the accumulation of phlegm in the liver. It is known to be a high-class therapeutic agent. It has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve fever and inflammation. It has been widely studied to prevent and cure liver toxicity. It has been used in clinical practice to reduce hepatic inflammation and oxidative damage.

This study has shown that the UPLC fingerprints of artificial Calculus Bovis extracts from different solvents are correlated to their anti-bacterial activities. Multi-linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and anti-bacterial activities. The results showed that the UPLC fingerprints were influenced by the quantity of total bioactive constituents.

In vitro cultured Calculus Bovis samples were characterized by higher content of total bile acids than the natural product. This was evaluated by comparing the bilirubin concentrations in these two samples. Among the seven analytes, chenodeoxycholic acid content was significantly higher in the in vitro cultured Calculus Suis.


DISCUSSION of calculus bovis is a precious medicinal material that has long been used to treat different diseases in Japan. It helps eliminate heat and helps normalize gallbladder function. It is also a common medicinal material in the traditional Chinese medicine. It is considered to be useful in reducing fever, inflammation, and sedation. It is known to be effective in preventing accumulation of blood stasis in the liver. It should not be used for resuscitation.

The aim of this study was to establish a fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for simultaneous quantification of seven analytes in Calculus bovis. The analytes were separated on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and 0.2% aqueous formic acid-acetonitrile as a mobile phase. Using an internal standard, the residual solvents were quantitatively determined.

The analytes were then separated by isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The evaporator tube temperature was set to 100 degrees C. The mass spectra were obtained in negative ion mode. The analytes showed perfect linearity in a wide dynamic range. The LODs of seven analytes were estimated to be 2-11 ng.

How Does Calculus Bovis Work in Treating PLC?


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