Calculus Bovis (Ox Beetle)
Originally called niu-huang, Calculus bovis is a Chinese herb used for medicinal purposes. It has been used to treat convulsions and high fever. It has also been used in Japanese medicine.
Besides cholesterol, other important components of Calculus bovis are bilirubin, cholic acid, and taurine. They are used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment of epilepsy, ulcerative colitis, and convulsions. Despite their beneficial effects, the mechanisms of these components are still unclear.
In this study, a network pharmacology method was applied to investigate the mechanism of Calculus bovis. Compound targets were screened for overlapping genes and GO enrichment analysis was conducted to analyze their connections. The results indicate that methyl cholate and deoxycorticosterone have the strongest connections with targets.
Moreover, in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis samples contain higher total bile acids than the natural products. Their bilirubin content is nearly equivalent. However, the amount of HCA and CDA in these products is lower.
The network pharmacology method was also applied to investigate the possible mechanism of ischemic stroke. The network was built using three methods. The first method was used to obtain a list of potential targets from the STRING database. The second method was a PPI (Phenylalanine-Proline-Glycine-Arginine) network analysis. The third method was a GO enrichment analysis.
In addition to obtaining a list of potential targets, we collected compounds from the Drugbank and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for the Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine. In total, we collected 12 bioactive compounds. These compounds were analyzed for their biological functions, such as protein hydrolysis, RNA transcription, and the hydrolysis of intracellular second messengers.
The results showed that Calculus bovis Sativus is effective for improving gallbladder function. Its protective effect against ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats was evaluated. It was found that Calculus Bovis Sativus significantly increased hepatic SOD activity. It also prevented ANIT-induced changes in bile flow, serum, and bilirubin concentration.
Various oxysterols and bile acids in Calculus bovis were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). This method was established to determine the multi-component content of Calculus bovis. In addition, it was developed for the simultaneous determination of major bile acids and taurine in artificial Calculus bovis. Moreover, it was also used to investigate the antibacterial activity of a sample.
A novel method of determining oxysterols was established by using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It is known that cholesterol is easily oxidized into oxysterols, but oxidation can only occur to substrates that have the 3b-hydroxy-5a-hydrogen function. Several analytes with the 3b-hydroxy-5a-hydrogen functional group were identified, including 24S, 25-epoxycholesterol, 22R-hydroxycholesterol, 24,25- and 24-27-dihydroxycholesterol.
The study evaluated the effects of oxysterols on LXRb expression in mouse brain. The oxysterols were detected in two regions of the CNS: the cortex and the spinal cord. The levels of oxysterols were low in both regions. However, the oxysterols were found to be higher in the spinal cord fraction.
LC-MSn was used to identify oxysterols in the cortex and the spinal cord. The sterols were derivates of side-chain hydroxylated 3-oxo-4-ene oxysterols. The sterols were derivatised with charge-carrying groups to enhance solubility in the mobile phase and ion yields upon API.
This method was then applied to 21 Calculus bovis samples obtained from different sources. The results showed that the levels of oxysterols varied among the samples under various developmental conditions. Compared with the oxysterols detected in human, a significantly high level of cholestenediols was found in the spinal cord. The levels of ursodeoxycholic acid were also found to be higher in in vitro cultured Calculus Suis.
Medicinal properties of Calculus bovis (ox bezoar) have been used for a long time in various diseases. It is also known as the Chinese Herb Niuhuang. Its effects on inflammation, fever, sedation and gallbladder function have been verified. However, its chemical constituents are not fully understood. Therefore, an efficient quality control approach is needed to ensure the quality of Calculus bovis. In addition, it should be noted that natural and artificial Calculus bovis are produced from different sources.
In this study, the composition of the components in Calculus bovis was evaluated. It was found that natural Calculus bovis has higher biliverdin content and zinc content. The major amino acids in the natural Calculus bovis were arginine, glutamic acid, glycine and proline.
The major bile acids in the natural Calculus bovis are cholic acid, dehydrocholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. An established liquid chromatography-elimination-separation-desorption (UPLC-ELSD) method was applied to determine the seven analytes in Calculus bovis. The LODs of these seven analytes were 2-11 ng. The UPLC-ELSD method showed acceptable linearity and repeatability.
A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of seven components in Calculus bovis. The method was established using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and 0.2% aqueous formic acid-acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The evaporator tube temperature was set at 100 degrees C. The elution rate was set at 1 mL/min. The mass spectra were obtained in the negative ion mode. Then, the relative concentration was calculated by setting the maximum concentration of each element as one.
The antibacterial activity of artificial Calculus bovis extracts was examined by microcalorimetry and UPLC. Moreover, the spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and anti-bacterial activities were investigated by multi-linear regression analysis.
HS-GC method for determination of residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus
HS-GC method is a fast and reliable way to measure water content in edible oil. It can also be used to determine the residual solvents in water-soluble APIs. The method is automated, accurate, and efficient. Moreover, it can be applied to any sample type.
The diluents for HS-GC method should have high solubilizing power and be stable at a relatively low temperature. Moreover, it must have a good boiling point. The diluents should be of the highest purity grade available.
The diluents used for HS-GC method were N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethylsulfoxide (DMS), 1,3-dimethyl-2-imiazolidinone, and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The reference standards for determining the residual solvents were ACS-grade and HPLC-grade.
The sensitivity of FE HS-GC method was increased by increasing the volume of sample and by adding methanol to the diluent. In addition, the area response of most solvents was reduced by a factor of two to three. However, this reduction was not absolute.
The degradation artifacts caused by the sample and diluent could be minimized by reducing the equilibration temperatures. The desorption temperature was set at about 20 degrees C higher than the melting point of each sample. The diluent was held at the desorption temperature for 3 minutes.
The sensitivity of this method was in agreement with that of the direct injection of N,N-dimethylformamide solution into the GC. Its sensitivity was higher than that of the static headspace method, although it was not as sensitive as the P&T technique.
The USP method is not suitable for class-3 solvents. The method is also time-consuming and is not applicable to most new chemical entities. It requires a sample of 250-500 mg per test. The method is not suitable for isotopically labeled APIs.
Side-effects of zolpidem on striatum corpus
Several studies have shown that zolpidem can help improve the motor symptoms of people with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). In addition, zolpidem has been associated with improved voluntary eye movements. But before taking zolpidem, make sure to talk to your doctor about the potential side-effects.
One of the major concerns about zolpidem is its possible CNS-depressant effects. This may include drowsiness, slowed speech or movement, and thoughts of suicide. It also can cause coordination problems and prolonged reaction time. In addition, the drug can cause a metallic taste in the mouth.
Another possible effect is increased risk of falling. This can cause hip fractures. It also can increase the likelihood of brain injuries. If you fall while you are on zolpidem, you should get immediate medical attention.
Similarly, zolpidem may inhibit certain overactive inhibitory structures in the brain, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Specifically, zolpidem binding sites are located in the SNr, the internal globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra (SN) in the brain. These binding sites have been linked to increased activity of specific motor cortical areas and may contribute to zolpidem’s motor benefits.
In some cases, zolpidem has been linked to increased risk of cancer and death. Other studies have shown that zolpidem increases the risk of infections. This is important to understand, given the widespread use of zolpidem. It is particularly important to inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or have had a history of infections.
In addition, zolpidem may be associated with increased GABAergic synapses in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex, which could lead to a decreased response to BZ antagonists. However, more studies are needed to assess this.
Calculus Bovis (Ox Beetle)